Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern affix with the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land place mammal dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is deeply urbanized, similar to higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, past four distinct seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years back European colonization. beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and future arranged along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, later the bond of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an growth of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the associated Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the sham of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada exploit of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legitimate compulsion on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, in the same way as Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a supporter of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the midst of the highest in international measurements of organization transparency, civil liberties, vibes of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many new countries. Canada’s long and mysterious association like the allied States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as capably as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human increase Index. Its liberal economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allowance of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic settlement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the help of Ten, the G20, the North American forgive Trade concurrence and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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