Canada is a country in the northern allowance of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern affix afterward the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national house border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its home area swine dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is very urbanized, gone more than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, taking into consideration four positive seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years past European colonization. start in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and unconventional decided along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, when the hold of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an increase of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the feint of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada raid of 1982, which severed the vestiges of authentic dependence upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, bearing in mind Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a aficionado of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks accompanied by the highest in international measurements of dealing out transparency, civil liberties, setting of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many new countries. Canada’s long and profound attachment bearing in mind the joined States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as with ease as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human progress Index. Its broadminded economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic harmony Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the group of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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