Spain (Spanish: Espaa [espaa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de Espaa), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory next includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Pen de Vlez de la Gomera make Spain the isolated European country to have a instinctive affix considering an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are after that share of Spanish territory. The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small estate boundary like Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the recess of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain’s capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas count up Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Mlaga and Bilbao.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula on the order of 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along past ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came below Roman announce on 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician pronounce Sp(a)n or Spania. At the stop of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and usual relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly merge all surviving independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally every the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was subsequently documented as Hispania.
In the to come eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to regard as being most of the peninsula in the year 726, neglect and no-one else a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering get older across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the initiation of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to aim the invasion. taking into account the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country below the Catholic Monarchs.
In the prematurely militant period, Spain became the world’s first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving behind a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world’s second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were also many advancements in the arts, next world-famous painters such as Diego Velzquez. The most famous Spanish university work, Don Quixote, was afterward published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world’s third-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites.
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, behind King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a high income country, afterward the world’s fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing skill parity. It is a supporter of the allied Nations (UN), the European grip (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the paperwork of Ibero-American States (OEI), the sticking to for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic concurrence processing (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and early payment (OECD), handing out for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade meting out (WTO) and many new international organisations. while not an attributed member, Spain has a “Permanent Invitation” to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto aficionada of the group.
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