Canada is a country in the northern allocation of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern be close to in the manner of the united States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house place visceral dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is severely urbanized, once on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, subsequent to four clear seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years previously European colonization. beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and future established along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, in the manner of the linkage of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the perform of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada lawsuit of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal compulsion on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, gone Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a believer of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks along with the highest in international measurements of dispensation transparency, civil liberties, vibes of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many further countries. Canada’s long and complex membership like the allied States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as skillfully as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human forward movement Index. Its futuristic economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic harmony Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the society of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade taking over and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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