Canada is a country in the northern allowance of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern affix in the same way as the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national house border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house area being dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is very urbanized, like exceeding 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, like four certain seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. introduction in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and innovative settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, like the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an addition of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the accomplishment of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada combat of 1982, which severed the vestiges of true dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, afterward Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a zealot of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks accompanied by the highest in international measurements of organization transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and technical association with the allied States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as without difficulty as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human move ahead Index. Its innovative economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is share of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic deal Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the bureau of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade concurrence and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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