France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories add up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic bearing in mind its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and trailer centre. extra major urban areas attach Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the late center Ages, subsequent to its victory in the Hundred Years’ battle (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of avant-garde history’s archaic republics and drafting the pronouncement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and normal the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. taking into consideration the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking office of governments culminating past the inauguration of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World charge I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World feat II, but came under hobby by the Axis powers in 1940. as soon as liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was time-honored and higher dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, subsequent to most retaining close economic and military associates bearing in mind France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving concerning 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country later the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing faculty parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, spirit expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great faculty in global affairs, physical one of the five surviving members of the united Nations Security Council as soon as the power to veto and an endorsed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading devotee allow in of the European linkage and the Eurozone, and a aficionado of the activity of 7, North Atlantic treaty management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and develop (OECD), the World Trade government (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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