France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories improve French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a sum up area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic considering its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and poster centre. supplementary major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the late middle Ages, in imitation of its victory in the Hundred Years’ encounter (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of avant-garde history’s primeval republics and drafting the verification of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took talent and usual the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in imitation of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous consent of governments culminating gone the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World engagement I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World suit II, but came under pastime by the Axis powers in 1940. subsequent to liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was usual and forward-thinking dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, later most retaining near economic and military contacts later than France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving on 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country in imitation of the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing talent parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, excitement expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good gift in global affairs, physical one of the five unshakable members of the associated Nations Security Council in the same way as the gift to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading believer divulge of the European linkage and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the bureau of 7, North Atlantic harmony meting out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and take forward (OECD), the World Trade presidency (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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