Europe is a continent located definitely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost portion of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be not speaking from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies physical geography, the home be next to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several grow old before its first conception in classical antiquity. The hostility of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which adjust on a spectrum rather than subsequently a smart dividing line. The geographic border together with Europe and Asia does not follow any come clean boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and allied Kingdom are next transcontinental in that the main allocation is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in additional continents.
Europe covers approximately 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is estranged into roughly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of virtually 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. other from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the end of ancient archives and the beginning of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the liberal era. back the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the company of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various get older the Americas, around every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French chaos and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to broadminded economic, cultural and social regulate in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most allocation in Europe, contributing to a fall in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet grip and the allied States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was not speaking along the Iron Curtain amid NATO in the West and the Warsaw harmony in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, in imitation of a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, in the same way as the idea of unifying Europe to attain common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. other European integration by some states led to the formation of the European linkage (EU), a remove embassy entity that lies together with a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward before the drop of the Soviet linkage in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used accompanied by Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes attach and immigration controls in the middle of most of its aficionado states.
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