Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern affix past the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate place inborn dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is deeply urbanized, behind on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its big area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, taking into account four positive seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years previously European colonization. start in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and sophisticated settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the sticking to of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the doing of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada encounter of 1982, which severed the vestiges of genuine habit upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, gone Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the course of the highest in international measurements of processing transparency, civil liberties, character of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada’s long and rarefied membership like the joined States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as with ease as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human progress Index. Its futuristic economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic settlement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the society of Ten, the G20, the North American free Trade concurrence and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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