Europe is a continent located utterly in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies instinctive geography, the land attach is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several get older past its first conception in classical antiquity. The unfriendliness of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than subsequently a brilliant dividing line. The geographic link up along with Europe and Asia does not follow any own up boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are moreover transcontinental in that the main allocation is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in supplementary continents.
Europe covers virtually 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is separated into more or less fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of approximately 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. additional from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration times marked the stop of ancient archives and the coming on of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the protester era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amongst the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various mature the Americas, almost every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French rebellion and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to futuristic economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most allowance in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet grip and the allied States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was estranged along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw treaty in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, bearing in mind a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, in the manner of the idea of unifying Europe to attain common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. other European integration by some states led to the formation of the European hold (EU), a cut off diplomatic entity that lies in the company of a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward past the fall of the Soviet hold in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes connect and immigration controls accompanied by most of its aficionado states.
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