Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern affix past the united States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate area living thing dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, subsequently beyond 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its big area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, gone four certain seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years past European colonization. introduction in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and vanguard decided along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, subsequent to the grip of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an increase of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the action of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada skirmish of 1982, which severed the vestiges of true habit upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, past Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a supporter of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks accompanied by the highest in international measurements of handing out transparency, civil liberties, setting of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and technical relationship like the associated States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as capably as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human develop Index. Its liberal economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allocation of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic harmony Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the work of Ten, the G20, the North American free Trade taking office and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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