France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories augment French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collect area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic subsequent to its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and poster centre. other major urban areas tally up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The harmony of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European power in the tardy center Ages, subsequent to its victory in the Hundred Years’ dogfight (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of open-minded history’s outdated republics and drafting the confirmation of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and conventional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. subsequent to the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking office of governments culminating in the manner of the creation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World feat I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World stroke II, but came under action by the Axis powers in 1940. in the manner of liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was usual and future dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, past most retaining near economic and military links similar to France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving roughly speaking 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country considering the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, energy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good gift in global affairs, bodily one of the five steadfast members of the joined Nations Security Council taking into consideration the aptitude to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot give leave to enter of the European sticking to and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the bureau of 7, North Atlantic harmony supervision (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and enhancement (OECD), the World Trade executive (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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