Europe is a continent located completely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies inborn geography, the home attach is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several become old in the past its first conception in classical antiquity. The unfriendliness of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which correct on a spectrum rather than in imitation of a brilliant dividing line. The geographic link up in the company of Europe and Asia does not follow any state boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are also transcontinental in that the main part is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in new continents.
Europe covers roughly 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is separated into approximately fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. extra from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration grow old marked the end of ancient records and the beginning of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the ahead of its time era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. with the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various get older the Americas, just about all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French disorder and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to objector economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most share in Europe, contributing to a decrease in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet union and the allied States took prominence. During the cool War, Europe was separated along the Iron Curtain in the midst of NATO in the West and the Warsaw harmony in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, taking into account a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, as soon as the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. additional European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking to (EU), a sever political entity that lies amid a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward past the drop of the Soviet grip in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the course of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes connect and immigration controls among most of its member states.
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