Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern connect subsequently the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national house border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house area innate dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is extremely urbanized, gone exceeding 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its huge area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, once four determined seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years in the past European colonization. arrival in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and highly developed decided along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, taking into account the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an growth of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the action of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada war of 1982, which severed the vestiges of genuine obsession on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a advocate of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks accompanied by the highest in international measurements of admin transparency, civil liberties, environment of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many further countries. Canada’s long and perplexing attachment subsequent to the joined States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as capably as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human money up front Index. Its objector economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allocation of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic pact Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the help of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade concurrence and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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