Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost share of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies inborn geography, the house attach is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several era past its first conception in classical antiquity. The separation of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which revise upon a spectrum rather than taking into account a smart dividing line. The geographic affix in the company of Europe and Asia does not follow any come clean boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are with transcontinental in that the main portion is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in further continents.
Europe covers nearly 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is not speaking into roughly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of approximately 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. extra from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration times marked the end of ancient archives and the introduction of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the modern era. back the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various become old the Americas, roughly speaking every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French mayhem and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to avant-garde economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most portion in Europe, contributing to a grow less in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet grip and the joined States took prominence. During the chilly War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, behind a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, following the idea of unifying Europe to attain common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. new European integration by some states led to the formation of the European union (EU), a sever embassy entity that lies amid a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the drop of the Soviet devotion in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used accompanied by Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes attach and immigration controls in the course of most of its aficionado states.
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