Canada is a country in the northern allocation of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern be next to taking into consideration the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area subconscious dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, with more than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its huge area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, similar to four distinct seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years since European colonization. start in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and forward-thinking approved along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, like the sticking together of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an buildup of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the put it on of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada stroke of 1982, which severed the vestiges of authenticated infatuation upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, in the same way as Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a aficionado of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the midst of the highest in international measurements of organization transparency, civil liberties, mood of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada’s long and profound connection once the joined States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as with ease as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human move on Index. Its enlightened economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic unity Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the bureau of Ten, the G20, the North American release Trade accord and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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