Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost share of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be on bad terms from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies brute geography, the home be next to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several become old since its first conception in classical antiquity. The separation of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which revise on a spectrum rather than subsequent to a sharp dividing line. The geographic attach amongst Europe and Asia does not follow any let in boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are as a consequence transcontinental in that the main portion is in Europe though pockets of their territory are located in further continents.
Europe covers not quite 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is not speaking into not quite fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of virtually 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. supplementary from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration get older marked the end of ancient chronicles and the coming on of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the broadminded era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various grow old the Americas, roughly speaking all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French chaos and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to unbiased economic, cultural and social tweak in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most ration in Europe, contributing to a terminate in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet union and the allied States took prominence. During the chilly War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain surrounded by NATO in the West and the Warsaw unity in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, later a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, subsequently the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. new European integration by some states led to the formation of the European devotion (EU), a remove diplomatic entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward previously the drop of the Soviet devotion in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the midst of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes be next to and immigration controls in the middle of most of its aficionado states.
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