Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern be close to once the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate place beast dominated by reforest and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, when more than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its gigantic area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, with four definite seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years previously European colonization. introduction in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and far along arranged along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, subsequent to the hold of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an growth of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the allied Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the appear in of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada skirmish of 1982, which severed the vestiges of valid infatuation upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, later than Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks along with the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, atmosphere of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada’s long and profound attachment behind the associated States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as capably as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human build up Index. Its highly developed economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allocation of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic concurrence Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the action of Ten, the G20, the North American release Trade concurrence and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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