Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be on bad terms from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies mammal geography, the land affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several period back its first conception in classical antiquity. The isolation of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which change upon a spectrum rather than later a smart dividing line. The geographic affix in the middle of Europe and Asia does not follow any disclose boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and allied Kingdom are as well as transcontinental in that the main part is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in other continents.
Europe covers practically 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into just about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. other from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration mature marked the stop of ancient archives and the introduction of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the objector era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the middle of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various get older the Americas, almost every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French mayhem and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to advanced economic, cultural and social amend in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most ration in Europe, contributing to a decrease in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet bond and the allied States took prominence. During the cool War, Europe was at odds along the Iron Curtain with NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, once a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, in imitation of the idea of unifying Europe to reach common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. new European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking to (EU), a cut off diplomatic entity that lies in the midst of a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward back the fall of the Soviet linkage in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used along with Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes attach and immigration controls in the course of most of its enthusiast states.
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