Europe is a continent located utterly in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost portion of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be not speaking from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies brute geography, the estate be close to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several get older in the past its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which adjust on a spectrum rather than subsequent to a bright dividing line. The geographic connect together with Europe and Asia does not follow any come clean boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are moreover transcontinental in that the main share is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in new continents.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of house area). Politically, Europe is estranged into nearly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of virtually 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. other from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration epoch marked the end of ancient chronicles and the dawn of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the forward looking era. in the past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. together with the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various grow old the Americas, going on for every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to open-minded economic, cultural and social modify in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most ration in Europe, contributing to a stop in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet devotion and the allied States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was separated along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw deal in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, later than a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, following the idea of unifying Europe to reach common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. other European integration by some states led to the formation of the European linkage (EU), a sever political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward past the fall of the Soviet bond in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the middle of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes border and immigration controls in the middle of most of its aficionado states.
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