Europe is a continent located unconditionally in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost portion of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be estranged from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies living thing geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several get older before its first conception in classical antiquity. The hostility of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which correct on a spectrum rather than past a bright dividing line. The geographic attach amid Europe and Asia does not follow any confess boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are then transcontinental in that the main part is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in further continents.
Europe covers nearly 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of estate area). Politically, Europe is estranged into more or less fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of approximately 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. additional from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the end of ancient records and the dawn of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the militant era. past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amid the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various epoch the Americas, around all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French lawlessness and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to protester economic, cultural and social fine-tune in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most allowance in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet bond and the associated States took prominence. During the frosty War, Europe was not speaking along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw treaty in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, in the manner of a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, once the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. extra European integration by some states led to the formation of the European hold (EU), a remove embassy entity that lies amid a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward past the fall of the Soviet sticking to in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the course of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes affix and immigration controls along with most of its fanatic states.
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