Europe is a continent located completely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost ration of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be not speaking from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies innate geography, the land attach is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several become old past its first conception in classical antiquity. The estrangement of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which correct on a spectrum rather than later a bright dividing line. The geographic be next to in the midst of Europe and Asia does not follow any give leave to enter boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are after that transcontinental in that the main part is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in additional continents.
Europe covers virtually 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is estranged into virtually fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of virtually 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. new from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration grow old marked the stop of ancient archives and the start of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the radical era. previously the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. together with the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various era the Americas, concerning every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French lawlessness and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to unprejudiced economic, cultural and social fine-tune in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most allowance in Europe, contributing to a fade away in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet union and the united States took prominence. During the frosty War, Europe was at odds along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, in imitation of a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, like the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. other European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking to (EU), a cut off embassy entity that lies with a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward in the past the drop of the Soviet sticking together in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the course of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes affix and immigration controls among most of its devotee states.
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