France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories combine French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic past its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and personal ad centre. further major urban areas combine Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European talent in the tardy middle Ages, taking into account its victory in the Hundred Years’ battle (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amid Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military aptitude in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of highly developed history’s antique republics and drafting the announcement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took aptitude and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. when the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous accord of governments culminating in imitation of the commencement of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World suit I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World encounter II, but came below occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. bearing in mind liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was customary and highly developed dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, taking into consideration most retaining near economic and military links following France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World pedigree Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving just about 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country later the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing knack parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, activity expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good gift in global affairs, beast one of the five long-lasting members of the joined Nations Security Council in the same way as the skill to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading advocate permit of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a aficionada of the work of 7, North Atlantic unity direction (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and fee (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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