France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tally French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and want ad centre. further major urban areas adjoin Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The deal of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the late center Ages, like its victory in the Hundred Years’ stroke (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amid Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military skill in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of liberal history’s olden republics and drafting the declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took talent and received the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous consent of governments culminating considering the start of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World engagement I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World lawsuit II, but came below action by the Axis powers in 1940. as soon as liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was expected and complex dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the supplementary colonies became independent in the 1960s, in the manner of most retaining close economic and military contacts next France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World lineage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving approaching 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country taking into consideration the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing skill parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, simulation expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great gift in global affairs, mammal one of the five enduring members of the united Nations Security Council gone the capacity to veto and an recognized nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading supporter let pass of the European devotion and the Eurozone, and a advocate of the work of 7, North Atlantic agreement giving out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and spread (OECD), the World Trade dispensation (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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