Europe is a continent located unquestionably in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be at odds from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies visceral geography, the estate affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times previously its first conception in classical antiquity. The hostility of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which revise on a spectrum rather than past a sharp dividing line. The geographic border amongst Europe and Asia does not follow any acknowledge boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are in addition to transcontinental in that the main ration is in Europe though pockets of their territory are located in other continents.
Europe covers approximately 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is separated into nearly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of not quite 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration time marked the stop of ancient records and the coming on of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the protester era. back the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amongst the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various mature the Americas, a propos every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French chaos and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to modern economic, cultural and social amend in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most portion in Europe, contributing to a decrease in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet devotion and the allied States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was on bad terms along the Iron Curtain along with NATO in the West and the Warsaw unity in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, subsequently a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, when the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. supplementary European integration by some states led to the formation of the European devotion (EU), a surgically remove political entity that lies amongst a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward in the past the fall of the Soviet devotion in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the middle of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes link up and immigration controls along with most of its advocate states.
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