Spain (Spanish: Espaa [espaa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de Espaa), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated upon the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory as well as includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Pen de Vlez de la Gomera create Spain the on your own European country to have a visceral attach past an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are furthermore portion of Spanish territory. The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small home boundary later than Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain’s capital and largest city is Madrid; additional major urban areas add together Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Mlaga and Bilbao.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along afterward ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed upon the peninsula until it came under Roman consider going on for 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician publish Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and received relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly integrate every permanent independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was later documented as Hispania.
In the in the future eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to pronounce most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving behind unaided a handful of little Christian realms in the north and lasting going on to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the launch of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to turn the invasion. following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the tardy 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country below the Catholic Monarchs.
In the into the future open-minded period, Spain became the world’s first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, desertion a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world’s second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were next many advancements in the arts, later than world-famous painters such as Diego Velzquez. The most famous Spanish intellectual work, Don Quixote, was as a consequence published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world’s third-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites.
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, like King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a tall allowance country, behind the world’s fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing talent parity. It is a devotee of the allied Nations (UN), the European grip (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the giving out of Ibero-American States (OEI), the sticking together for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic pact running (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and momentum (OECD), government for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade processing (WTO) and many additional international organisations. even though not an certified member, Spain has a “Permanent Invitation” to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto aficionado of the group.
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