Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern attach next the united States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land place innate dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is terribly urbanized, in imitation of on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, in the same way as four distinct seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years back European colonization. dawn in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and sophisticated decided along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, subsequently the bond of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an increase of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the allied Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the feign of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada battle of 1982, which severed the vestiges of authenticated obsession on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, as soon as Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a advocate of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks along with the highest in international measurements of management transparency, civil liberties, environment of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and highbrow link behind the associated States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as competently as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human proceed Index. Its advocate economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic agreement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the group of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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