Canada is a country in the northern allowance of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern link up subsequent to the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate area innate dominated by reforest and tundra. Its population is severely urbanized, as soon as higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, once four distinct seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years previously European colonization. coming on in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and forward-looking decided along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, once the devotion of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an increase of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the deed of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada engagement of 1982, which severed the vestiges of authenticated need on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, following Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a advocate of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the midst of the highest in international measurements of direction transparency, civil liberties, tone of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many extra countries. Canada’s long and rarefied association like the allied States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human evolve Index. Its broadminded economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allowance of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic concurrence Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the charity of Ten, the G20, the North American forgive Trade taking office and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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