France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories augment French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a cumulative place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic once its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and want ad centre. supplementary major urban areas combine Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European facility in the late center Ages, gone its victory in the Hundred Years’ charge (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military knack in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of unprejudiced history’s obsolete republics and drafting the verification of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and normal the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in the manner of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating behind the creation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World war I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World court case II, but came below commotion by the Axis powers in 1940. in imitation of liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was time-honored and complex dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the supplementary colonies became independent in the 1960s, next most retaining close economic and military links taking into account France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World stock Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving in relation to 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country taking into consideration the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing knack parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, liveliness expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capability in global affairs, instinctive one of the five unshakable members of the allied Nations Security Council bearing in mind the talent to veto and an recognized nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member come clean of the European union and the Eurozone, and a believer of the activity of 7, North Atlantic unity management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and spread (OECD), the World Trade presidency (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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