Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost portion of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be divided from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies physical geography, the estate be close to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several get older previously its first conception in classical antiquity. The separation of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which change on a spectrum rather than gone a bright dividing line. The geographic link up with Europe and Asia does not follow any declare boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are furthermore transcontinental in that the main allocation is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in additional continents.
Europe covers very nearly 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of estate area). Politically, Europe is separated into very nearly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of roughly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the end of ancient archives and the introduction of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the unbiased era. previously the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas, going on for all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to enlightened economic, cultural and social correct in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most allocation in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet sticking together and the associated States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was on bad terms along the Iron Curtain in the company of NATO in the West and the Warsaw settlement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, behind a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, as soon as the idea of unifying Europe to reach common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. additional European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking to (EU), a separate embassy entity that lies amongst a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward previously the drop of the Soviet sticking to in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used along with Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes connect and immigration controls in the midst of most of its supporter states.
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