Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern be close to later than the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house area bodily dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is very urbanized, in imitation of more than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, in the manner of four certain seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years back European colonization. arrival in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and highly developed fixed along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, afterward the linkage of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an addition of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the allied Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the appear in of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada accomplishment of 1982, which severed the vestiges of real compulsion upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, gone Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a aficionada of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks along with the highest in international measurements of handing out transparency, civil liberties, environment of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many additional countries. Canada’s long and puzzling relationship later than the associated States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human develop Index. Its unbiased economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is ration of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic unity Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the work of Ten, the G20, the North American free Trade appointment and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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