Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern be next to bearing in mind the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national house border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area visceral dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is intensely urbanized, gone greater than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its immense area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, later than four determined seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years previously European colonization. initiation in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and forward-thinking contracted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, later than the grip of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an addition of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the feat of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada lawsuit of 1982, which severed the vestiges of authentic habit upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, behind Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a believer of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks accompanied by the highest in international measurements of management transparency, civil liberties, feel of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and rarefied relationship once the allied States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as competently as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human move on Index. Its highly developed economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allowance of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the activity of Ten, the G20, the North American free Trade appointment and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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