Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern attach in imitation of the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national house border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house area physical dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is extremely urbanized, similar to on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its big area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, next four distinct seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years in the past European colonization. initiation in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and cutting edge contracted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, in the manner of the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an addition of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the associated Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the doing of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada lawsuit of 1982, which severed the vestiges of authenticated need on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, bearing in mind Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a advocate of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks accompanied by the highest in international measurements of giving out transparency, civil liberties, air of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many new countries. Canada’s long and technical attachment similar to the united States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human enhance Index. Its futuristic economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allowance of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic deal Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the outfit of Ten, the G20, the North American forgive Trade agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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