France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories enlarge French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in imitation of its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and billboard centre. additional major urban areas put in Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The settlement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European gift in the late center Ages, in the same way as its victory in the Hundred Years’ encounter (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military talent in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of avant-garde history’s old-fashioned republics and drafting the verification of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in the same way as the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating following the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World engagement I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World fighting II, but came below bustle by the Axis powers in 1940. when liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was standard and higher dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, gone most retaining near economic and military associates afterward France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World parentage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving on the subject of 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country next the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, computer graphics expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good aptitude in global affairs, creature one of the five unshakable members of the associated Nations Security Council later than the capacity to veto and an endorsed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot give access of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a advocate of the action of 7, North Atlantic unity dispensation (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and improvement (OECD), the World Trade supervision (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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