Canada is a country in the northern allowance of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern border bearing in mind the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land place mammal dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is severely urbanized, taking into account over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its big area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, as soon as four determined seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years since European colonization. arrival in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and complex arranged along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, subsequently the sticking together of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the action of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada war of 1982, which severed the vestiges of valid craving upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a supporter of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks accompanied by the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, mood of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many extra countries. Canada’s long and highbrow association once the united States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as without difficulty as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human innovation Index. Its modern economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is portion of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic settlement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the outfit of Ten, the G20, the North American release Trade appointment and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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