France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories enhance French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a gather together place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in the same way as its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and classified ad centre. further major urban areas complement Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy middle Ages, next its victory in the Hundred Years’ accomplishment (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military knack in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French mayhem overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of protester history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took knack and normal the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. bearing in mind the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating in the same way as the launch of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World combat I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World case II, but came under action by the Axis powers in 1940. taking into consideration liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was standard and sophisticated dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, similar to most retaining close economic and military links gone France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World pedigree Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving regarding 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country next the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capability parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great talent in global affairs, innate one of the five enduring members of the joined Nations Security Council like the skill to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading believer divulge of the European linkage and the Eurozone, and a member of the work of 7, North Atlantic deal handing out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and loan (OECD), the World Trade executive (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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