Canada is a country in the northern share of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern attach following the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate place innate dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is intensely urbanized, in the same way as on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its big area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, once four distinct seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years back European colonization. beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and future contracted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, later the hold of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an buildup of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the work of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada skirmish of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legitimate craving upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, when Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a believer of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the midst of the highest in international measurements of doling out transparency, civil liberties, air of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and complex relationship behind the united States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as competently as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human move forward Index. Its modern economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allocation of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic deal Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the work of Ten, the G20, the North American forgive Trade accord and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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