Italy is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Italian Alps and surrounded by several islands. Located in the center of the Mediterranean sea and traversed along its length by the Apennines, Italy has a largely ascetic seasonal climate. The country covers an place of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares right to use land borders in the same way as France, Slovenia, Austria, Switzerland and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa). once concerning 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous aficionada disclose of the European Union.
Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to a myriad of ancient peoples and cultures, the most predominant monster the Indo-European Italic peoples who gave the peninsula its name. An Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic like a presidency of the Senate and the People that expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and Asia. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant capacity in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural, political and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a mature of more than 200 years during which Italy’s law, technology, economy, art, and literature developed. Italy remained the homeland of the Romans and the metropole of the empire, whose legacy can as well as be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments, Christianity and the Latin script.
During the to the front center Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous challenger city-states and maritime republics, mainly in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to good wealth through trade, commerce and banking, laying the groundwork for open-minded capitalism. The Renaissance began in Italy and forward movement to the descend of Europe, bringing a renewed assimilation in humanism, science, exploration and art. Italian culture flourished, producing renowned scholars, artists and polymaths. During the center Ages, Italian explorers discovered extra routes to the far and wide East and the further World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy’s public notice and political capability significantly waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting in the middle of the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, and it was subsequent to conquered and extra divided by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign direct led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and embassy division, Italy was a propos unconditionally unified in 1861, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the tardy 19th century to the prematurely 20th century, Italy suddenly industrialised, namely in the north, and acquired a colonial empire, even though the south remained largely impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite innate one of the main victors in World combat I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World prosecution II upon the Axis side curtains in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. as soon as the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, normal a democratic Republic and enjoyed a prolonged economic boom, becoming a extremely developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world’s most culturally and economically innovative countries, taking into consideration its economy ranking eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy has the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth, the third-largest central bank gold reserve, and a categorically tall spirit expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs; it is both a regional facility and a great power, and is ranked the world’s eighth most-powerful military. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European union and a aficionado of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the sticking to for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen area and many more. The country have greatly influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts, music, literature, philosophy, science and technology, fashion, cinema, cuisine, sports, as competently as jurisprudence, banking and business. As a addendum of its cultural wealth, Italy is house to the world’s largest number of World pedigree Sites, and is the fifth-most visited country.
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a guide to traveling italy by train tripsavvy in general train travel in italy is less expensive than other countries in europe most seasoned travelers just buy point to point rail tickets rail map italy trains in italy happyrail trains in italy rail map italy trains in italy book now all trains in italy see the map below green lines scenic routes in italy purple lines high speed trains train routes in italy italiarail consult our rail map to find the right combination of train routes to build your itinerary depending on your journey italy offers high speed frecce lines trains that connect small towns and larger cities and slower regional trains that traverse this map is just an overview of italy s rail offerings new lines are being built all the time italiarail italy train ticket and rail pass experts access italy train fares timetables and travel information enjoy great service and up to 60 off when you book rail in italy with us train italy trains map pass timetables and fares italy use italy s train network to travel from rome s empire era monuments to florence s renaissance art and architecture wander aimlessly around venice s romantic canals board the train to italy s style capital milan or travel south to pizza capital naples traveling italy by train italy train routes eurail com italy has an extensive high speed train network which will get you where you want to go a lot faster compared to the regional train system however for the high speed trains you ll need to book a seat reservation how to travel on italian trains tripsavvy train travel in italy is a convenient inexpensive way to see much of the country especially its major cities and towns the nationwide rail system was begun in the 1800s and expanded greatly under the fascist regime of mussolini who famously made the trains run on time train travel in italy a beginner s guide tickets from 9 90 a beginner s guide to train travel in italy including trains between rome florence venice naples milan verona cinque terre how to find schedules fares buy cheap italian train tickets online italy rail passes and train tips from rick steves all that said keep in mind that per day costs are lower for longer term rail passes so if you ll be doing a lot of italian train travel a pass may indeed pencil out especially if you re venturing beyond italy on a larger european trip europe railway map explore europe by train with interrail train routes through 31 countries the map below shows the bigger cities in europe to which major cities they are connected and how long it takes to travel between them