Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern affix next the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate place bodily dominated by reforest and tundra. Its population is intensely urbanized, in the manner of more than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, subsequently four positive seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years past European colonization. arrival in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and innovative settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, taking into consideration the sticking together of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an growth of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the deed of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of valid need on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, similar to Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a zealot of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the course of the highest in international measurements of organization transparency, civil liberties, vibes of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada’s long and obscure connection next the joined States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as competently as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human development Index. Its innovative economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is share of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the intervention of Ten, the G20, the North American free Trade accord and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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