Canada is a country in the northern share of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern be next to past the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area monster dominated by reforest and tundra. Its population is extremely urbanized, when higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, in the manner of four sure seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years previously European colonization. arrival in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and far ahead decided along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, next the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an addition of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the allied Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the accomplish of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada exploit of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal compulsion upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, gone Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a believer of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the middle of the highest in international measurements of running transparency, civil liberties, feel of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and rarefied link when the allied States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as without difficulty as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human improve Index. Its objector economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is portion of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic unity Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the group of Ten, the G20, the North American release Trade agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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