Europe is a continent located very in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost portion of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies creature geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several era in the past its first conception in classical antiquity. The disaffection of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which correct upon a spectrum rather than once a bright dividing line. The geographic link up in the middle of Europe and Asia does not follow any state boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are along with transcontinental in that the main part is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in other continents.
Europe covers approximately 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into just about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of approximately 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. other from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the end of ancient archives and the introduction of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the open-minded era. past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the midst of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various mature the Americas, regarding every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French mayhem and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to liberal economic, cultural and social bend in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most allocation in Europe, contributing to a decrease in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet hold and the joined States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was estranged along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, once a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, considering the idea of unifying Europe to attain common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. extra European integration by some states led to the formation of the European devotion (EU), a separate political entity that lies in the middle of a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward before the fall of the Soviet bond in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the midst of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes be close to and immigration controls along with most of its devotee states.
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