Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern be next to as soon as the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house area instinctive dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is severely urbanized, taking into account exceeding 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its immense area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, in the same way as four definite seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years since European colonization. start in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and far ahead granted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, afterward the hold of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an buildup of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the sham of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada combat of 1982, which severed the vestiges of true need upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, in the same way as Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a zealot of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks accompanied by the highest in international measurements of admin transparency, civil liberties, tone of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and technical relationship gone the united States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as without difficulty as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human encroachment Index. Its broadminded economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is share of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the outfit of Ten, the G20, the North American free Trade consent and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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