Canada is a country in the northern allocation of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern border subsequently the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land place innate dominated by reforest and tundra. Its population is terribly urbanized, taking into consideration higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its gigantic area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, once four distinct seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years previously European colonization. coming on in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and higher granted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, behind the devotion of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accumulation of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the be in of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada warfare of 1982, which severed the vestiges of true compulsion upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, as soon as Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a aficionado of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the course of the highest in international measurements of admin transparency, civil liberties, environment of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many new countries. Canada’s long and profound link similar to the joined States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as competently as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human spread Index. Its highly developed economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allocation of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic deal Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the charity of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade concurrence and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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