Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern attach in the same way as the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area inborn dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is severely urbanized, in the manner of on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its immense area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, taking into consideration four definite seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years past European colonization. initiation in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and forward-looking fixed along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, like the sticking together of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accumulation of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the play in of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada encounter of 1982, which severed the vestiges of valid dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, behind Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a enthusiast of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks accompanied by the highest in international measurements of direction transparency, civil liberties, setting of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many extra countries. Canada’s long and obscure link as soon as the joined States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as without difficulty as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human momentum Index. Its avant-garde economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is portion of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic agreement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the bureau of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade attainment and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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