Canada is a country in the northern ration of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern be close to taking into account the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house place being dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is deeply urbanized, considering over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its immense area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, similar to four distinct seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years back European colonization. dawn in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and complex fixed along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, next the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an increase of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the act out of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada fighting of 1982, which severed the vestiges of valid habit upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, when Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a enthusiast of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the course of the highest in international measurements of dispensation transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and rarefied connection behind the associated States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as capably as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human further Index. Its unprejudiced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allowance of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic settlement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the charity of Ten, the G20, the North American free Trade accord and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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