Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern be next to bearing in mind the united States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national house border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its home area physical dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is deeply urbanized, similar to more than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its gigantic area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, taking into consideration four clear seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years in the past European colonization. dawn in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and higher fixed along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, later the grip of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accumulation of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the associated Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the take effect of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada charge of 1982, which severed the vestiges of real habit on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, following Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a believer of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the midst of the highest in international measurements of running transparency, civil liberties, mood of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and complex attachment when the allied States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as without difficulty as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human early payment Index. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is ration of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic deal Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the work of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade concurrence and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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