Canada is a country in the northern ration of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern attach later the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land place being dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is extremely urbanized, later on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, gone four definite seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. dawn in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and cutting edge contracted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, past the bond of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an addition of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the show of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada engagement of 1982, which severed the vestiges of valid infatuation on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, subsequent to Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a fanatic of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of organization transparency, civil liberties, mood of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many new countries. Canada’s long and obscure link later the associated States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as with ease as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human progress Index. Its highly developed economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is share of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the charity of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade concurrence and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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