Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern link up in imitation of the associated States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national house border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house place visceral dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is extremely urbanized, taking into consideration higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its big area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, past four positive seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years in the past European colonization. arrival in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and sophisticated approved along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, taking into consideration the sticking together of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an increase of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the enactment of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada stroke of 1982, which severed the vestiges of valid need upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, taking into account Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a aficionado of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the midst of the highest in international measurements of executive transparency, civil liberties, feel of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many additional countries. Canada’s long and profound link considering the united States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as with ease as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human enhancement Index. Its innovative economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allowance of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic unity Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the group of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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