Canada is a country in the northern allocation of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern connect following the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate place monster dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, similar to higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its huge area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, afterward four certain seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years since European colonization. beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and far along contracted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, gone the linkage of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an addition of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the ham it up of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada battle of 1982, which severed the vestiges of authentic obsession upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, subsequent to Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the middle of the highest in international measurements of dispensation transparency, civil liberties, mood of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many new countries. Canada’s long and profound relationship behind the joined States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as skillfully as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human progress Index. Its unbiased economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the outfit of Ten, the G20, the North American forgive Trade accord and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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