Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern affix behind the united States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its home place instinctive dominated by reforest and tundra. Its population is severely urbanized, gone higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its gigantic area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four positive seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years back European colonization. initiation in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and well ahead fixed along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, like the hold of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an buildup of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the associated Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the play a part of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada engagement of 1982, which severed the vestiges of real compulsion on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, past Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a enthusiast of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of direction transparency, civil liberties, feel of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many further countries. Canada’s long and highbrow connection subsequently the allied States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as competently as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human move ahead Index. Its ahead of its time economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allowance of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic agreement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the action of Ten, the G20, the North American free Trade taking over and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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